音乐日记:10月11日 政治鼓动家威尔第

12 10 2016  音乐中的希望和力量 冬   特别策划  257 次阅读  0 评论

10月11日 政治鼓动家威尔第

10月11日  政治鼓动家威尔第

居塞比•威尔第Giuseppe Verdi(1813~1901)

意大利伟大歌剧作曲家。主要作品:《伦巴底人》、《纳布科》、《阿伊达》、《厄尔南尼》、《阿尔济拉》、《弄臣》、《游吟诗人》、《茶花女》、《假面舞会》、《奥赛罗》等。

“因为这部歌剧,我有理由说,我的艺术生涯真正开始了。”威尔第这样谈及《纳布科》,这部作品还使他成为一个政治鼓动家。

这出歌剧是以尼布甲尼撒(古巴比伦王——译者注)为故事原型,《纳布科》是一个更有音乐剧感觉的名字。故事讲述了尼布甲尼撒在耶路撒冷击败了犹太人,并把他们掳回了巴比伦。故事里有祷告,几乎每个角色都参与了。有一个疯狂的场景,一个弥漫着战争气氛的合唱和一段哀歌。还有犹太人临刑前的葬礼进行曲。

这个故事在政治上起了作用。在19世纪40年代左右,奥地利控制了意大利很多地区,关于犹太人被俘的故事活脱脱就是19世纪的意大利现实的翻版。但是仅从音乐角度来看,这出歌剧在预演的时候就已引起了广泛关注,在首演当夜之前,就已经获得成功了。1842年3月9日,这出歌剧最终在米兰的拉斯卡拉剧院首演,《纳布科》没有辜负它的声誉。看第一幕戏的时候,观众反应就很热烈,以致于威尔第怀疑他们的热情是不是装出来的。

在第三幕戏时响起了响亮清澈的对自由的呼号——希伯来奴隶们的合唱。大家一起合唱的曲调很简单——任何人都会唱——观众要求再唱一遍。这让在剧院巡逻的警察不安起来。重唱是违反法律的,因为那可能会引发群众向奥地利官员和贵族示威——他们此刻正坐在包厢看戏。毫无疑问,《纳布科》的首映安排这么迟才上演,警察也松了一口气,因为演出季节结束之前,《纳布科》只能上演8场。

如果他们真这样高枕无忧,那也是非常短暂的。因为当《纳布科》在秋天重演时,总共表演了57场,创了当时的纪录。而且据说每场表演希伯来奴隶合唱那一段时,都重唱了一遍。

October 11th

The Rabble Rouser

"With this opera it is fair to say my artistic career began." So wrote Giuseppe Verdi of Nabucco, a masterpiece that also did much to launch his reputation as a political rabble-rouser.

The opera is based on the story of Nebuchadnezzar -- given the more musical name Nabucco -- who defeats the Jews at Jerusalem and has them carried off to Babylon as captives. It includes prayers by practically every character, a mad scene, warlike choruses and laments and a dead march as the Jews are nearly executed.

The story had political punch. In the 1840's Austria controlled much of Italy, and a story about Jews in captivity was bound to be taken as a parallel to 19th century Italy. But on musical terms alone Nabucco was so talked about during rehearsals that it was already a success before the curtain came up on opening night. When the debut came at La Scala in Milan on March 9th, 1842, Nabucco lived up to its reputation and then some. The audience was so vociferous in their response to Act I that at first Verdi suspected that they were being insincere.

In Act III came a clarion call for freedom, the Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves. It had a simple tune sung by all the massed voices of the chorus -- a tune anyone could sing -- and the audience demanded that it be repeated. The police patrolling the opera house grew uneasy. Repeats were against the law because of the danger that they would spark demonstrations against the Austrian officials and nobility looking down from their box seats. The police were no doubt relieved that Nabucco premiered late in the schedule so that there was time for only eight performances before the season ended.

If so, their relief was short-lived. Because when Nabucco reopened in the autumn it had 57 performances -- a record for one season  and it's said that the Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves was repeated at every one of them.

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